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Occurrence of Antibiotic Resistance and Virulent Factors in Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Bush Meat Roasted and Sold along Road Sides in Ekiti State

Background and Objectives: In Nigeria wild animals are hunted for meat mainly. Meanwhile, meat from wild animals are known to consist of pathogens apart from being contaminated by unhygienic environments (road sides) where they are mainly prepared and sold. The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) in samples of roasted bush meat prepared and sold along Ado-Ekiti-Ilesha road. Materials and Methods: A total of 182 roasted bush meat samples were collected in seven selected towns in Ekiti State, Nigeria between January and February, May and June, 2016 representing dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The samples were examined for the presence of enterococci within 2 h of collection. Standard methods were used to identify Enterococcus faecalis, determined its resistance to antibiotics and also determine the virulence factors in the sample. Results: A total of 91 (32.38%) out of 281 samples of roasted bush meat examined were contaminated with E. faecalis. The highest rate of contamination 61.22% was observed in samples collected from Igede-Ekiti while the least 6.70% was observed from samples collected in Ado-Ekiti. Rates of contamination among samples from other selected towns were, 40, 38.71 and 38.1% from Efon-Alaye-Ekiti, Iyin-Ekiti and Erio-Ekiti, respectively. Antibiotic susceptibility test results reveal that some of the isolates have acquired resistance to a number of antibiotics. High resistance rate was recorded against ampicillin 35.71%, followed by gentamicin 30.22%, ciprofloxacin 28.02% and ofloxacin 24.73%. The incidence of virulence factors was low in all the isolates with aggregation substance, haemolysin and gelatinase recording 7.69, 8.24 and 27.47%, respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of virulence factors in E. faecalis is an evidence of potential pathogenesis. The roasted bush meat screened from road sides in Ekiti State was contaminated with E. faecalis. There is need for strict monitoring and proper hygiene education for the food handlers in the study area.

Open Access