This study innovates plasmonic hydrogen sensors (PHSs) by applying phase space reconstruction (PSR) and convolutional neural networks (CNNs), overcoming previous predictive and sensing limitations. Utilizing a low-cost and efficient colloidal lithography technique, palladium nanocap arrays are created and their spectral signals are transformed into images using PSR and then trained using CNNs for predicting the hydrogen level. The model achieves accurate predictions with average accuracies of 0.95 for pure hydrogen and 0.97 for mixed gases. Performance improvements observed are a reduction in response time by up to 3.7 times (average 2.1 times) across pressures, SNR increased by up to 9.3 times (average 3.9 times) across pressures, and LOD decreased from 16 Pa to an extrapolated 3 Pa, a 5.3-fold improvement. A practical application of remote hydrogen sensing without electronics in hydrogen environments is actualized and achieves a 0.98 average test accuracy. This methodology reimagines PHS capabilities, facilitating advancements in hydrogen monitoring technologies and intelligent spectrum-based sensing.

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