ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing | VOL. 15

Two-In-One: A Design Space for Mapping Unimanual Input into Bimanual Interactions in VR for Users with Limited Movement

Publication Date Sep 30, 2022


Virtual Reality (VR) applications often require users to perform actions with two hands when performing tasks and interacting with objects in virtual environments. Although bimanual interactions in VR can resemble real-world interactions—thus increasing realism and improving immersion—they can also pose significant accessibility challenges to people with limited mobility, such as for people who have full use of only one hand. An opportunity exists to create accessible techniques that take advantage of users’ abilities, but designers currently lack structured tools to consider alternative approaches. To begin filling this gap, we propose Two-In-One, a design space that facilitates the creation of accessible methods for bimanual interactions in VR from unimanual input. Our design space comprises two dimensions, bimanual interactions and computer assistance, and we provide a detailed examination of issues to consider when creating new unimanual input techniques that map to bimanual interactions in VR. We used our design space to create three interaction techniques that we subsequently implemented for a subset of bimanual interactions and received user feedback through a video elicitation study with 17 people with limited mobility. Our findings explore complex tradeoffs associated with autonomy and agency and highlight the need for additional settings and methods to make VR accessible to people with limited mobility.


Interactions In Virtual Reality Bimanual Interactions Virtual Reality Limited Mobility Objects In Virtual Environments Design Space Computer Assistance Interaction Techniques Virtual Environments Virtual Reality Applications

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