Abstract

Over the last years, there have been striking changes in the management of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) based on survival advantage of combining either a new hormonal agent (NHA) or docetaxel (D) with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Some of these studies primarily assessing doublet treatment included men who underwent concomitant or sequential treatment with D. Most recently, prospective randomized evidence emerged on this triplet strategy too. We aimed to outline the current data and ongoing trials evaluating the usage of the triplet therapy in male individuals with mHSPC. Phase III trials PEACE-1 and ARASENS showed that the upfront triplet treatment with ADT+D and either abiraterone acetate or darolutamide outperformed ADT+D in terms of survival, while severe toxicity was mainly driven by D. Importantly, prospective evidence comparing triplet vs. ADT+NHA is still lacking. Men with de novo high-volume disease benefit most from the triplet, while in cases with metachronous and/or low-volume disease, survival advantage is still disputable. As efficacy of ADT+NHA does not appear to be substantially amplified by combination with D, those men with a more favorable underlying tumor biology might mostly benefit from this doublet, also taking quality-adjusted survival into account.

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