Sustainable agriculture aims to meet the growing global demand for food without compromising environmental integrity. This review paper explores the integration of agronomic practices, environmental physiology, and plant nutrition as pathways toward sustainable crop production. Intensive agricultural practices have led to significant problems such as soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, and environmental pollution. Recent advancements in plant physiology have enhanced our understanding of plant growth and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Optimizing crop production in a sustainable manner depends on insights into key processes like photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and nutrient uptake. This review discusses the role of plant growth-promoting microorganisms (PGPMs) as biofertilizers, providing an alternative to harmful agrochemicals. PGPMs can improve soil health and promote plant growth when applied to soil, seeds, or plant surfaces, reducing reliance on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Additionally, nanotechnology in agriculture is examined, illustrating how nanomaterials (NMs) and nano-based fertilizers can enhance nutrient absorption and increase crop yields. Beyond these scientific approaches, there is an urgent need to implement novel agricultural practices that support sustainability. The world population is growing at a disquieting rate, placing tremendous pressure on natural resources. This threatens future generations' access to nutritious food and clean air. Innovative approaches like climate-smart agriculture, organic farming, biodynamic agriculture, sustainable intensification, and regenerative agriculture, along with practices such as integrated farming systems, precision agriculture, integrated nutrient management, and integrated pest management, have proven to safeguard agricultural sustainability. By integrating these innovative approaches and practices, it is possible to meet the increasing demands for food while preserving the environment.

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