To elucidate the role of dietary fats on the relationship between mild cognitive impairment and sarcopenia and help identifying and preventing the decline of cognitive and muscle function in elderly individuals. The study conducted involving a group of 1812 individuals between the ages of 61 and 92. Body composition and BMR were assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cognitive function and dietary nutrition were evaluated by neuropsychological assessments and questionnaire of food intake frequency. Lipidomics analysis was performed using UHPLC-Qtrap-MS/MS. MCI and SA are mutual influencing factors, lower intake of MUFA, PUFA and higher intake of fat was associated with cognitive dysfunction and/or SA (p < 0.05). PUFA was important for MCI combined with SA (Compared with Q1, Q4 OR: 0.176, 95%CI: 0.058,0.533). Lipidomics analysis revealed that triacylglycerol (TAG) contain more carbon chains with saturated double bonds may be closely related to cognitive impairment and the progression of SA (p < 0.05). While, DAG with carbon chains of unsaturated double bonds is opposite. Insufficient intake of unsaturated fatty acids was associated with the development of cognitive decline and the progression of SA. MUFA affecting muscle health, fats and PUFA has a greater impact on MCI combined with SA. Less MUFA intake and increasing saturated double-bonded fatty acid intake might be the key factors on promoting cognitive impairment and SA in the elderly. They have the potential to serve as prospective biomarkers indicating a higher risk of cognitive decline and/or SA in the elderly population.

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