To determine the prevalence of red-green (RG) color vision deficiency (CVD) in an elderly population and its related factors. This report is a part of the Tehran Geriatric Eye Study: a cross-sectional population-based study that was conducted on the elderly population (≥60y) of Tehran, Iran using multi-stage stratified random cluster sampling. All study participants underwent complete ocular examination, including the measurement of uncorrected and best-corrected visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The color vision was tested using Ishihara plates with the near optical correction in place. Of the 3791 invitees, 3310 participated in the study. The data of 2164 individuals were analyzed after applying the exclusion criteria. The prevalence of R-G CVD was 3.73% (95%CI: 2.37%-5.09%) in the whole sample; the prevalence of protanomaly, protanopia, and deuteranopia was 1.51%, 1.76%, and 0.45%, respectively. The prevalence of R-G CVD was significantly higher in males than in females. The prevalence of RG CVD increased with advancing age from 2.91% in the age group 60-64y to 5.8% in the age group ≥80y (P=0.070). According to the multiple logistic regression model, male sex, and glaucoma were significantly related to RG CVD. Older age and hypertension also had a marginally significant relationship with RG CVD. Changes in color vision occur in the elderly due to the aging process and some physiological and pathological factors. Since the change in visual perception may affect the person's performance, this aspect of the visual system's function should also be taken into consideration in the examinations of the elderly.

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