PurposeTo determine the prevalence of color vision deficiency (CVD) in the northeast of Iran.MethodsThis cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted in Mashhad, in the northeast of Iran. Multistage cluster sampling was used for selecting the participants. After preliminary screening, the subjects underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. The examination included the measurement of visual acuity, refraction, and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. The Farnsworth D-15 test was used to detect CVD. The color vision test was done with the best optical correction.ResultsOf the 4453 invitees, 3132 participated in the study (response rate: 70.4%). The overall prevalence of CVD in this study was 13.93% [95% confidence interval (CI): 12.44–15.41]. The prevalence of CVD in males and females was 15.85% (95% CI: 13.26–18.44) and 12.96% (95% CI: 11.22–14.71), respectively. The most prevalent types of CVD were tritanopia (6.96%; 95% CI: 5.84–8.08), deuteranopia (3.92%; 95% CI: 3.14–4.70) and tritanomalous (2.21%; 95% CI: 1.55–2.86), respectively. According to the results of logistic regression, the odds of having protanopia were higher in females than males [Odds ratio (OR) = 4.80; 95% CI: 1.20–19.18]. The odds of having deuteranopia were lower in females than males (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35–0.76). The odds of having CVD were lower in 16–30 (OR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.37–0.73) and higher in 46–60 (OR: 1.41; 95% CI: 1.01–1.97) year age groups compared to 7–15 year age group. The odds of having tritanopia in 16–30 and 46–60 year age groups was 0.56 (95% CI: 0.35–0.90) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.19–2.67) compared to 7–15 year age groups, respectively.ConclusionThe prevalence of CVD was high in this study, especially in males and people over 46 years of age. Planning for involvement of ocular disease control programs in health care systems can be helpful in the reduction of CVD and improving the quality of life in affected patients.

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