The Chilo infuscatellus (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a significant pest of sugarcane in China. The genome-level characteristics of this pest are important genetic resources for identification, phylogenetic analysis, and even management. In the present study, the complete mitogenome of C. infuscatellus was sequenced and characterized. The assembled mitochondrial genome is 15,252bp in length and includes 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes (tRNAs), 2 ribosomal RNA genes (rRNAs), and an A + T-rich region. Except for the CGA codon for the cox1 gene, the PCGs are initiated with ATN codons (ATG, ATT, and ATA). These PCGs are terminated with TAA or an incomplete termination codon of a single T. Except for the loss of the "DHU" arm for trnS1, the tRNA genes were folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The A + T-rich region has a high AT content of 96.19% and contains the motifs "ATAGA" and "ATTTA", as well as a 19bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite regions. The C. infuscatellus mitogenome exhibits a conserved gene order among lepidopteran insects, with a rearrangement of the trnM gene compared to the ancestral insect gene order. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 13 PCGs using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods confirmed the monophyly of Pyralidae and Crambidae within Pyraloidea. The relationships between subfamilies in Pyralidae can be described as (Galleriinae + (Phycitinae + (Pyralinae + Epipaschiinae))). The "PS clade" and "non-PS clade" were formed within the family Crambidae. These findings provide valuable genetic resources for the identification, phylogenetic analysis, and management of sugarcane borers, contributing significantly to our understanding of the phylogeny of Pyraloidea insects and their evolution.

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