Abstract

Abstract The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia obtains the most desalination water from the Red Sea. In Saudi Arabia, 14 desalination plants receive water from the Red Sea, and three are located in the country’s east and rely on the Arabian Gulf. The study has observed 16 desalination plants out of 17 desalination plants in the kingdom. Most of the desalination plants in Saudi Arabia currently use the advanced technologies to produce potable water with less impact on the surrounding environment. The current study examined the variation of hydrographic parameters along all available desalination plants in Saudi Arabia. This is the first inter-annual database of hydrographic parameters in the last 4 years. The peak salinity was measured at the Duba desalination plant in 2020, and it was 67.2 ppt. During 2018, the Azizia desalination plant reported the lowest value of 36.8 ppt. The maximum temperature recorded at the Qunfudah desalination plant in 2019 was 34.6°C. In 2017, the minimum temperature was 19.1°C at the Jubail desalination plant. The level of dissolved oxygen and pH were likewise not significantly changed along the brine outflow and in the outfall, in contrast to temperature and salinity. On the basis of 4 years’ of data from observed desalination facilities, the current study sheds light on the less environmental impact with regard to hydrographic factors.

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