Wastewater reuse is an essential constituent of sustainable water management globally. The pulp and paper industry causes substantial volumes of polluted wastewater per ton of paper and is also one of the largest consumers of fresh water per ton of paper production. As a result, these effluents should be efficiently treated to protect the environment, aquatic life and humans from intoxication. The kraft pulp and paper industry has encountered the challenge of reducing the discharge of conventional and toxic pollutants to the environment. The objective of this chapter is to evaluate the use of several membrane technologies (pressure-driven) to treat the discharged alkaline extraction bleaching effluents from kraft paper and pulp cellulose production units. The application of membrane technology in water and wastewater treatment is increasing due to stringent water quality standards. The membrane process has been classified into four broad categories depending on the membrane’s pore size: microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). This chapter briefly reviews the application of MF, UF, NF and RO for pulp and paper industry wastewater treatment, including fundamentals, mechanisms, fouling challenges and their controls. It also focuses on the application of pressure-driven ceramic membrane technology for the treatment of bleaching effluents from the kraft and pulp industry.

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