The dandelions from Taraxacumsect.Erythrosperma are taxonomically well distinguished and ecologically restricted to warm and sunlit habitats of steppes, dry and sandy grasslands, and distributed in temperate regions of Europe and Central Asia, with some being introduced to North America. Despite the long tradition of botanical research, the taxonomy and distribution of dandelions of T.sect.Erythrosperma is still underexplored in central Europe. In this paper, by combining traditional taxonomic studies supported by micromorphological, molecular and flow cytometry analyses as well as potential distribution modelling we shed light on taxonomical and phylogenetical relationships between members of T.sect.Erythrosperma in Poland. We also provide an identification key, species-checklist, detailed descriptions of morphology and occupated habitats as well as distribution maps for 14 Polish erythrosperms (T.bellicum, T.brachyglossum, T.cristatum, T.danubium, T.disseminatum, T.dissimile, T.lacistophyllum, T.parnassicum, T.plumbeum, T.proximum, T.sandomiriense, T.scanicum, T.tenuilobum, T.tortilobum). Finally, conservation assessments performed using the IUCN method and threat categories for all the examined species are proposed.

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