The precision nutrition paradigm is based on the premise that substantial variation exists between human subjects in terms of diet-related disease risk and response to dietary interventions. In terms of better defining, 'the right diet for the right person at the right time' may be more appropriate than 'one-diet-fits-all'. This review will explore how systems biology and nutrigenomics approaches have advanced the precision nutrition paradigm. We will draw upon a number of elegant mechanistic studies that have enhanced our understanding with respect to the complex biology and inter-organ crosstalk, relating to inflammation and metabolism, that underpin cardio-metabolic health. Also, this review will explore the extent to which more targeted, precision nutrition approaches may attenuate adverse risk factors associated with cardio-metabolic disease. We will focus on the key characteristics or 'metabotypes' of high- v. low-risk individuals and response v. non-response to interventions, to generate greater insights with respect to risk stratification and therapeutic interventions to enhance disease prevention. The goal is to utilise systems biology to enhance understanding by underpinning more targeted nutritional approaches, which may improve efficacy of personalised nutrition interventions.

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