Abstract

Various studies have identified the kidney as a target organ for patulin (PAT)-induced toxicity. However, detailed mechanistic insights into PAT-induced nephrotoxicity had not yet been done. Therefore, along with classical toxicological parameters, liquid chromatography-high resolution massed spectrometry (LC-HRMS) based metabolomics has been carried out to delineate the mechanism(s) of PAT-induced nephrotoxicity.An in vivo study was conducted using male Wistar rats, divided into three groups. PAT (25 µg/kg b.wt and 100 µg/kg b.wt) and, control were given through oral gavage, 5 days/week for 28 days. At the end of the experiment, changes in the mean body/ organ weight, food and water intake, expression of marker proteins of kidney injury, and histopathological changes were investigated. Furthermore, using LC-HRMS based metabolomics was performed on the serum and urine of PAT-exposed rats.The histopathological and toxicological analysis revealed a significant increase in glomerular mesangial cells, vacuolar degeneration, and cast deposition in the proximal convoluted tubules. The metabolomics showed metabolic perturbations in amino and fatty acid-related metabolic pathways in serum and urine of PAT-treated rats. In conclusion this study expands our understanding of PAT-induced metabolic alterations and its effects on renal function.

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