Insect-resistance genetically modified (GM) plants derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been cultivated to control pests, but continuous cultivation of Bt-transgenic plants at large-scale regions leads to the resistance evolution of target insects to transgenic plants. RNA interference (RNAi) technology is considered an effective strategy in delaying the resistance evolution of target insects. We here developed a single transgenic oilseed rape (Brassica napus) line with hairpin RNA of the chitin-synthase 1 gene (CHS1) of Plutella xylostella (hpPxCHS1) and a pyramid transgenic B. napus line harboring hpPxCHS1 and Bt gene (Cry1Ac). Escherichia coli HT115 delivered hpPxCHS1 showed negative effects on the growth of P. xylostella. The single transgenic and pyramid transgenic B. napus significantly reduced the larval weight and length of P. xylostella and increased its lethality rate, with down-regulation expression of the PxCHS1 gene in insects. Compared to Bt-transgenic B. napus, pyramid-transgenic B. napus shorted the mortality time of P. xylostella, indicating that RNAi technology synergistic with Bt protein improves the effectiveness of controlling target insects. Our results proved that RNAi can delay the resistance evolution of target insects to Bt-transgenic plants. © 2024 Society of Chemical Industry.

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