RNA sequencing reads and isobaric tags for a relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-Based Proteomic Data were used to determine the impact of conceptus presence and preovulatory estradiol concentration on function of the d16 uterus in beef cattle. Conceptuses and endometrial biopsies were collected from the uterine horn ipsilateral to the corpus luteum. Total cellular RNA was extracted from endometrium for RNA sequencing across two lanes of a NovaSeq S2, 2 × 50-bp run. Two independent uterine luminal fluid pools (ULF) were made for each group: highE2/conceptus, highE2/noconceptus, lowE2/conceptus, and lowE2/noconceptus. Peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents and analyzed using 2-dimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Transcript abundances were determined using DESeq2 (FDR <0.05, FC>2). Scaffold Q+ was used to quantitate peptide and protein identifications in ULF. Datasets include uterine transcript and protein abundances among highE2/conceptus vs highE2/noconceptus and lowE2/conceptus vs lowE2/noconceptus groups. This information can be useful for further investigating the role of specific transcripts and proteins in the maintenance of early pregnancy in beef cattle. This dataset is related to the article ‘Influence of conceptus presence and preovulatory estradiol exposure on uterine gene transcripts and proteins around maternal recognition of pregnancy in beef cattle’ by E.J. Northrop-Albrecht, J.J.J. Rich, R.A. Cushman, R. Yao, X. Ge, G.A. Perry. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology.

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