In recent years, with the improvement of people's living standards and changes in dietary patterns, dietary knowledge and food preference have been playing an increasingly crucial role in health. The aim of our study was to examine the relationship between dietary knowledge, food preference, and long-short term health status among Chinese adults aged 18-70. This study employed cross-sectional data from the 2015 China Health and Nutrition Survey obtained from 4822 adults. We utilized self-assessed health status as an indicator of long-term health status and utilized sickness in the last four weeks as a measure of short-term health status. Taking advantage of ordered probit regression, long-term health status was regressed on all predictors, while the binary logistic regression was used to analyze the factors influencing short-term health status. The propensity score matching is employed to account for potential selection bias in analysis, thereby increasing the robustness and credibility of results. The analysis revealed that dietary knowledge and food preference can improve an individual's long-term health status significantly. However, there is no evidence to show that short-term health status is affected by food preference. Furthermore, dietary knowledge is negatively associated with short-term health status. These findings highlight the importance of dietary education and healthy eating habits in improving the long-term health status of Chinese adults. The study suggests implications for public health strategies aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of Chinese adults.

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