COVID-19 disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), started in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, and quickly became the global pandemic. The high spread rate, relatively high mortality rate, and the lack of specific medicine have led researchers and clinicians worldwide to find new treatment strategies. Unfortunately, evidence shows that the virus-specific receptor Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE-2) is present on the surface of most cells in the body, leading to immune system dysfunction and multi-organ failure in critically ill patients. In this context, the use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) and their secret has opened new therapeutic horizons for patients due to the lack of ACE2 receptor expression. MSCs exert their beneficial therapeutic actions, particularly anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, mainly through paracrine effects which are mediated by exosomes. Exosomes are bilayer nanovesicles that carry a unique cargo of proteins, lipids and functional nucleic acids based on their cell origin. This review article aims to investigate the possible role of exosomes and the underlying mechanism involved in treating COVID-19 disease based on recent findings.

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