The water associated with oil and gas reservoirs is formation water (FW), which is generated at the surface during hydrocarbon production. The major challenges associated with the treatment of FW are higher contents of oil and grease, high salinity, suspended solids, organic pollutants, traces of heavy metals, and undesired microbes. To meet the stringent requirements for the usage and disposal of FW, various treatment methods have been developed and implemented in the oil industries for the sustainable management of generated FW from the hydrocarbon reservoir. This article aims to summarize the aspects related to the treatment of FW like the generation, available treatment methods, and prevailing challenges. The basics and working principles of individual methods have been described along with relevant examples for the treatment of FW. In addition, the combined/hybrid methods for the treatment of FW have also been discussed to improve overall efficiency. Hybrid methods have shown a better performance than conventional techniques and need to be implemented for effective treatment of the voluminous FW to meet stringent environmental standards for reuse and discharge.

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