AbstractWe evaluated the prognostic value of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia International Prognostic Index (CLL-IPI) using a pooled data set of patients with CLL treated first line with targeted drugs (n = 991) or chemoimmunotherapy (n = 1256). With a median observation time of 40.5 months, the 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for targeted drug–treated patients varied by CLL-IPI risk group: 96.5% (low), 87.6% (intermediate), 82.4% (high), and 78.7% (very high). Differences between consecutive CLL-IPI risk groups were observed for intermediate vs low (hazard ratio [HR], 3.296; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.576-6.894; P = .002) and high vs intermediate (HR, 1.365; 95% CI, 1.003-1.858; P = .048) but not very high vs high. CLL-IPI factors β2-microglobulin, IGHV mutational status, and TP53 status each retained prognostic value for PFS. The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates by CLL-IPI risk groups were 100%, 96%, 93.9%, and 89.4%, respectively, with no differences between consecutive risk groups. Age, Binet stage, β2-microglobulin, and TP53 status each retained prognostic value for OS. In chemoimmunotherapy patients (median observation time, 66.9 months), 3-year PFS rates for CLL-IPI risk groups were 78.1%, 51.4%, 40.1%, and 16.5%, respectively; corresponding 3-year OS rates were 97.4%, 93.1%, 81.8%, and 57.3%. In a matched-pair analysis, PFS differences in targeted therapies (n = 812) vs chemoimmunotherapy (n = 812) across all risk groups and OS differences in all but patients at low risk were demonstrated. The CLL-IPI maintains its prognostic value in predicting PFS outcomes with targeted drugs. With the caveat of a short observation time, its impact in predicting survival appears diminished. Targeted therapies showed enhanced outcomes over chemoimmunotherapy, highlighting their effectiveness across various risk groups. Our findings support ongoing assessment of prognostic tools in CLL treatment evolution. These trials were registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT02345863, #NCT02401503, #NCT02689141, #NCT02445131, #NCT02758665, #NCT02950051, #NCT02242942, #NCT00262782, #NCT00281918, and #NCT01010061.

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