Abstract

Background/purposeJuvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in the pediatric population and anterior uveitis is its commonest extra-articular manifestation. Typically the uveitis presents as chronic anterior uveitis and there is limited literature of the posterior segment manifestations of the disease. Similar to other vaccines, anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination that began as an urgent measure to control the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has not been without adverse events. We are reporting a 19-year-old Asian Indian female who was diagnosed and treated for JIA associated anterior uveitis that was unilateral and was under anti-inflammatory control but showed worsening of uveitis with posterior segment inflammation in both eyes following anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.Case reportA 19-year-old Asian Indian female with a history of juvenile idiopathic arthritis on treatment with methotrexate, presented with right eye chronic anterior uveitis with peripheral subclinical retinal vasculitis and macular edema which was brought under control following administration of adalimumab. She was inflammation free for 6 months until she received anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and developed new onset floaters in both eyes that were initially noted after the first dose and increased after the second dose. Clinical examination revealed presence of keratic precipitates and grade 1+ anterior chamber inflammation along with vitiritis in both eyes. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed angiographically active retinal vasculitis without the presence of macular edema in both eyes. This was managed with a short course of topical difluprednate and continuation of systemic immunosuppressive therapy with adalimumab and methotrexate.ConclusionJIA associated uveitis results from an autoimmune process which can be controlled with timely immunosuppressive treatment. It is important to be aware of the potential risk of flare up of uveitis with posterior segment manifestations following anti- SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

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