Mapping NAD+ dynamics in live cells and human is essential for translating NAD+ interventions into effective therapies. Yet, genetically encoded NAD+ sensors with better specificity and pH resistance are still needed for the cost-effective monitoring of NAD+ in both subcellular compartments and clinical samples. Here, we introduce multicolor, resonance energy transfer-based NAD+ sensors covering nano- to millimolar concentration ranges for clinical NAD+ measurement and subcellular NAD+ visualization. The sensors captured the blood NAD+ increase induced by NMN supplementation and revealed the distinct subcellular effects of NAD+ precursors and modulators. The sensors then enabled high-throughput screenings for mitochondrial and nuclear NAD+ modulators and identified α-GPC, a cognition-related metabolite that induces NAD+ redistribution from mitochondria to the nucleus relative to the total adenine nucleotides, which was further confirmed by NAD+ FRET microscopy.

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