Human platelet lysates (HPLs) from allogeneic platelet concentrates (PCs) are biomaterials, which are rich in various trophic factors, increasingly used in regenerative medicine and biotherapy. Understanding how preparation methods influence the HPL protein profile, biological function, and clinical outcomes is crucial. Our study sheds light on the proteomes and functionality of different HPLs, with the aim of advancing their scientifically grounded clinical applications. To achieve this, PCs suspended in plasma underwent three distinct processing methods, resulting in seven HPL types. We used three characterization techniques: label-free proteomics and tandem mass tag (TMT)-based quantitative proteomics, both before and after the immunodepletion of abundant plasma proteins. Bioinformatic tools assessed the proteome, and western blotting validated our quantitative proteomics data. Subsequent pre-clinical studies with fluorescent labeling and label-free proteomics were used as a proof of concept for brain diffusion. Our findings revealed 1441 proteins detected using the label-free method, 952 proteins from the TMT experiment before and after depletion, and 1114 proteins from the subsequent TMT experiment on depleted HPLs. Most detected proteins were cytoplasmic, playing key roles in catalysis, hemostasis, and immune responses. Notably, the processing methodologies significantly influenced HPL compositions, their canonical pathways, and, consequently, their functionality. Each HPL exhibited specific abundant proteins, providing valuable insight for tailored clinical applications. Immunoblotting results for selected proteins corroborated our quantitative proteomics data. The diffusion and differential effects to the hippocampus of a neuroprotective HPL administered intranasally to mice were demonstrated. This proteomics study advances our understanding of HPLs, suggesting ways to standardize and customize their production for better clinical efficacy in regenerative medicine and biotherapy. Proteomic analyses also offered objective evidence that HPPL, upon intranasal delivery, not only effectively diffuses to the hippocampus but also alters protein expression in mice, bolstering its potential as a treatment for memory impairments.

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