Traditional sex-related biases in research are now obsolete, and it is important to identify the sex of humans, animals, and even cells in research protocols, due to the role of sex as a fundamental facet of biology, predisposition to disease, and response to therapy. Genetic sex, epigenetics and hormonal regulations, generate sex-dimorphisms. Recent investigations acknowledge sex differences in metabolic and immune health as well as chronic diseases. Prohibitin, an evolutionarily conserved molecule, has pleotropic functions in mitochondrial housekeeping, plasma membrane signaling, and nuclear genetic transcription. Studies in adipocytes, macrophages, and transgenic mice indicate that prohibitin interacts with sex steroids and plays a role in mediating sex differences in adipose tissues and immune cell types. Prohibitin may, depending on context, modulate predisposition to chronic metabolic diseases and malignancy and, because of these attributes, could be a target for sex-based therapies of metabolic and immune-related diseases as well as cancer.

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