Group B Streptococcus (GBS) colonization during pregnancy is associated with significant neonatal morbidity and mortality and represents a major public health concern, often associated with poor screening and management. The aim of this study was to review and compare the most recently published influential guidelines on the screening and management of this clinical entity during antenatal and intrapartum periods. A descriptive review of guidelines from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Society of Obstetricians and Gynecologists of Canada on the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease was carried out. There is a consensus among the reviewed guidelines regarding the optimal screening specimen type, indications for intrapartum antibiotic administration such as bacteriuria during pregnancy, clinical signs of chorioamnionitis or maternal pyrexia, and history of GBS-related neonatal disease. There is also agreement on several conditions where no intervention is recommended, that is, antepartum treatment of GBS and GBS-positive women with planned cesarean delivery and intact membranes. Controversy exists regarding the optimal screening time, with the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists stating against routine screening and on management strategies related to preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes. The development of consistent international practice protocols for the timely screening of GBS and effective management of this clinical entity both during pregnancy and the intrapartum period seems of paramount importance to safely guide clinical practice and subsequently improve neonatal outcomes.

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