Purpose:To determine the prevalence of color vision deficiency (CVD) and its correlation with amblyopia and refractive errors among primary school children.Methods:In this population-based cross-sectional study, 2160 children were selected from 36 primary schools; 60 students were from each school (10 students in each grade), with equal sex distribution. A complete eye examination including refraction using a photorefractometer, determination of visual acuity (VA) and color vision using a Yang vision tester, and evaluation of ocular media opacity using a direct ophthalmoscope was performed. Children who could not answer at least 4 plates of the Ishihara color test were considered as color vision deficient subjects. Amblyopia was determined if pinhole VA was worse than 0.3 LogMAR (equal to 20/40).Results:The prevalence of CVD was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.5% to 3%) which was higher in male subjects (37 [3.5%] boys vs. 11 [1.0%] girls, P < 0.001). Mean VA was lower among students with CVD as compared to normal color vision children (P = 0.035) and amblyopia was observed in 8.3% (95% CI: 0.2% to 16.4%) of patients with CVD versus 2.1% (95% CI: 1.5% to 2.08%) of children with normal color vision perception (P = 0.005). A statistically significant correlation between lower VA and CVD was observed (P = 0.023).Conclusion:Although CVD was correlated with lower VA and amblyopia, there was no relationship between CVD and the type of amblyopia, refractive error, anisometropia or strabismus.


  • color vision deficiency (CVD) was detected in 48 children indicating a prevalence of 2.2%

  • The prevalence of CVD in male subjects was significantly higher as compared to female students [3.5 vs. 1.0%, P < 0.001, Table 1]

  • Mean and median pinhole visual acuity (VA) were lower in children with CVD as compared to subjects with normal color vision [P = 0.035, Figure 1]

Read more



The prevalence of inherited red‐green color vision deficiency (CVD) has been reported to be 8% and 0.4% in male and female individuals among European Caucasian populations[1,2,3,4,5] and 4% to 6.5% among male. A marked difference between male and female ratios has usually been testified.[5]


Full Text

Published Version
Open DOI Link

Get access to 115M+ research papers

Discover from 40M+ Open access, 2M+ Pre-prints, 9.5M Topics and 32K+ Journals.

Sign Up Now! It's FREE

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call