Abstract

Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high recurrence rate, which places a significant burden on both patients and the healthcare system. Hence, it holds significant importance to predict the recurrence risk following treatment for individuals diagnosed with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). As new generation technologies continue to emerge, an increasing number of recurrence risk prediction tools are being developed and discovered. This article provides an overview of the primary recurrence risk prediction tools currently available, including the liquid biopsy, tissue biopsy, and risk prediction tables. Each of these tools is described in detail and illustrated with relevant examples. Furthermore, we conduct an analysis of the advantages and disadvantages of these tools. This article aims to enhance the reader's understanding of the current progress in recurrence prediction tools and encourage their practical utilization in the fields of precision medicine and public health.

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