The recent introduction of the Perioscope has dramatically improved the removal of subgingval calculus during periodontal therapy. The Perioscopy system was initially designed to visualize the subgingival region for diagnosis but has been subsequently adapted to aid the treatment of periodontitis. The perioscope, as it is called, is an endoscope that has been specifically designed to explore and visualize the periodontal pocket in patients with periodontitis. An image on a computer monitor shows the diseased tooth's root surface. The Perioscope consists of a miniature camera placed inside a sleeve and inserted under the gingival sulcus or pocket for visualization and instrumentation subgingivally. The subgingval images from the Perioscope is immediately displayed as real-time videos with a magnification ranging from 24-X to 48-X times on a chair side monitor or video screen disclosing even minute details of the pathologies of the root surface which might be missed under conventional visualization. As this microscopic endoscope provides excellent magnified visualization of the root surface and assures the complete or near complete removal of the bacterial infection, this technology provides the best conservative approach to non-surgical and surgical periodontal care.

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