Hypoxia conditions induced by bone defects would prolong the duration of bone regeneration. The effect of osteostatin (OST) on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and angiogenesis under hypoxia conditions remain unexplored. SPF mice were obtained, and MSCs were isolated from bone marrow. MSCs were treated with 1% oxygen for hypoxia induction, and 200nM of OST was used to treat cells under nomorxia or hypoxia conditions. Cell proliferation was evaluated using CCK8 assay, and trypan blue staining was implemented for determining cell death ratio. Alkaline phosphatase activity and alizarin redS staining was conducted to histologically evaluated osteogenic differentiation. Flow cytometry was used for the detection of CD31hiEmcnhi cells (Type H ECs), whose migration was detected by Transwell assay and angiogenesis was measured by tube formation assay. Protein level was measured by western blotting and mRNA level was monitored via RT-qPCR. The MSC proliferation was enhanced by OST under hypoxia conditions. The osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was decreased under hypoxia conditions, and treatment of OST significantly reversed its inhibitory effect. The hypoxia treated culture medium of MSCs promoted the proliferation, migration, and angiogenesis of type H ECs, while the effects were further strengthened by OST addition. HIF-1α was found to be upregulated in hypoxia treated MSCs, whereas silencing of HIF-1α had reversed effects on the angiogenic capacity of Type H ECs. OST improved the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs and further promoted angiogenesis of type H ECs through upregulating HIF-1α expression.

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