The lack of clean water and access to energy are two major obstacles to global sustainable systems. The development of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology gained the attention of water desalination projects due to its cost decline, carbon-free emission, and the on-site energy production. However, studies on in-depth analysis of the performance of these systems remain rare. This study performs a comprehensive a design optimization and seven-factor analysis (energy, exergy, economic, environmental, energoeconomic, exergoeconomic, enviroeconomic - 7E) of a grid-tied PV system powering a large-scale seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) plant. First, an optimal design model is developed based on real hourly measured data for the SWRO load demand and renewable resources, while considering net energy metering mechanism. The objective function is delineated to diminish the energy cost of the system, concomitant with the imposition of operational constraints. Second, an analytical model is established to perform exergetic calculations for the optimal design. Third, a sensitivity analysis is conducted to show how the model parameters affect the system design and costs. The results show that the optimal system relies on a 4.25 MW solar PV array and a 3.125 MW grid-tied inverter. This configuration reduces the levelized cost of energy by 48.3 % and carbon emissions by 50 % compared to a grid-only system. The implementation of net-metering has also maximized the designed system's revenues to 263,834 $/year. Further, the optimally designed system achieves a lower levelized cost of water (0.2217 $/m3), minimal capacity shortage, and negligible unmet load ratios (0.048 %) despite grid outages. From the exergetic assessment, the proposed system has a high exergy efficiency (9.3 %) which can be achieved despite the high value of the exergy loss. Moreover, the energoeconomic and exergoeconomic indicators have recorded tiny values (3.35E-5 kWh/$ and 0.0311 kWh/$, respectively), which are considered a desired outcome. Notably, a profit of 4285.4$ is achieved through the sale of carbon emissions reduction. The sensitivity analysis revealed an increase in the system's total cost of 4.91 % and 9.36 % and the system's energy cost of 4.91 % and 8.7 % if the energy purchase price raised by 10 % and 20 %, respectively. Also, it indicates that a fall in the electricity sellback rate of 10 % would remarkably raise the system's energy cost by 47.3 %. Finally, reducing the PV-Inverter costs by 15 % would drop the system's net present and energy costs by 51.4 % and 60 %, respectively. Overall, the insights from this study have the potential to expedite the realization of sustainable development goals 6, 7, and 13, particularly in developing nations abundant in solar energy resources.

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