Patients with type 2 diabetes often exhibit impairments in both glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS) and incretin-induced insulin secretion (IIIS). These phenotypes are associated with altered glucose metabolism in pancreatic β-cells, although the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we used MIN6-K8 pancreatic β-cell lines as a model to examine the effect of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation (O-GlcNAcylation), a glucose-induced protein posttranslational modification, on insulin secretion. O-GlcNAcylation was enhanced in high-glucose-treated MIN6-K8 cells, and high levels of O-GlcNAcylation attenuated PKA-dependent phosphorylation, suggesting that the two protein modifications may compete with each other. Immunoprecipitation proteomic analysis identified six candidate proteins that were O-GlcNAcylated by high-glucose treatment, whereas the O-GlcNAcylations were removed by treatment with an incretin mimetic, exendin-4. Among these proteins, knockdown of myocyte enhancer factor 2D (Mef2d) enhanced insulin secretion, and high-glucose treatment increased the level of O-GlcNAcylation of Mef2d in MIN6-K8 cells. Furthermore, knockout of Mef2d promoted GIIS in MIN6-K8 cells, whereas adenovirus-mediated rescue of Mef2d decreased GIIS in the knockout cells. These results suggest that Mef2d negatively regulates insulin secretion through O-GlcNAcylation.

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