Commonly attributed to orchids, the pollen movement in Vanilla has been associated with food deception and specific plant-pollinator relationships. This study investigated the role of flower rewards and pollinator specificity in the pollen transfer of a widely distributed member to the euglossinophilous Vanilla clade, V.pompona Schiede using data collected from Brazilian populations. These included investigations on morphology, light microscopy and histochemistry, and analysis of flowers scent using GC-MS. The pollinators and the mechanisms of pollination were recorded through focal observations. The yellow flowers of V. pompona are fragrant and offer nectar as reward. The major volatile compound of the V. pompona scent, carvone oxide, shows convergent evolution in Eulaema-pollinated Angiosperms. The pollination system of V. pompona is not species-specific, but its flowers are strongly adapted to pollination by large Eulaema males. Pollination mechanism is based in a combination of perfume collection and nectar seeking. The dogma of a species-specific pollination system based on food deception in Vanilla has been broken with the increase in studies on this Pantropical orchid genus. Here, least three bee species and dual reward-offering are involved in pollen transfer in V.pompona. Visitation frequency of bees collecting perfumes, used in courtship by male euglossines, is higher than in searching for food, as short-lived young euglossine males seem to be more interested in sex than food. A pollination system based on offering both nectar and perfumes as resources is described for the first time in orchids.

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