Success of root canal treatment depends on complete removal of microorganisms which is done through chemomechanical instrumentation of root canal system. To achieve this, earlier stainless steel files were used which had inherent disadvantages of excessive tooth cutting as well as straightening of the canal curvature. This Eventually led to introduction of NiTi alloy which has proven to be a valuable adjunct in root canal preparation. These NiTi files are highly flexible and elastic due to their Metallurgical properties like Austenite, Martensite, Intermediate R phase. It has got greater strength and modulus of elasticity making them more beneficial in curved canals. Over the evolution various changes have taken place within the NiTi rotary systems and various generations too. Thus the Objective of this Review article is to completely discuss about Evolution, Metallurgy, Mechanical properties, Generations of NiTi rotary system.

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