Under a uniform vertical magnetic field, the collision process of ionic vacancies created on a disk-electrode with an insulator fringe (fringed vertical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrode (fringed-VMHDE)) was clarified by measuring the diffusion current of copper cathodic deposition. Due to the repulsion of Coulomb’s force, ionic vacancies with the same sign do not collide in a vacancy layer formed on the electrode, but collide in the upward microscopic vortexes ascending from the vacancy layer, forming stable nanobubbles. After emitted from the tops of the vortexes, the nanobubbles are changed to microbubbles by further collisions in the tornado-like rotation called vertical MHD flow.

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