Monitoring of large sites requires coordination between multiple cameras, which in turn requires methods for relating events between distributed cameras. This paper tackles the problem of automatic external calibration of multiple cameras in an extended scene, that is, full recovery of their 3D relative positions and orientations. Because the cameras are placed far apart, brightness or proximity constraints cannot be used to match static features, so we instead apply planar geometric constraints to moving objects tracked throughout the scene. By robustly matching and fitting tracked objects to a planar model, we align the scene's ground plane across multiple views and decompose the planar alignment matrix to recover the 3D relative camera and ground plane positions. We demonstrate this technique in both a controlled lab setting where we test the effects of errors in the intrinsic camera parameters, and in an uncontrolled, outdoor setting. In the latter, we do not assume synchronized cameras and we show that enforcing geometric constraints enables us to align the tracking data in time. In spite of noise in the intrinsic camera parameters and in the image data, the system successfully transforms multiple views of the scene's ground plane to an overhead view and recovers the relative 3D camera and ground plane positions.

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