Data augmentation is a necessity to enhance data efficiency in deep learning. For vision-language pre-training, data is only augmented either for images or for text in previous works. In this paper, we present MixGen: a joint data augmentation for vision-language representation learning to further improve data efficiency. It generates new image-text pairs with semantic relationships preserved by interpolating images and concatenating text. It's simple, and can be plug-and-played into existing pipelines. We evaluate MixGen on four architectures, including CLIP, ViLT, ALBEF and TCL, across five downstream vision-language tasks to show its versatility and effectiveness. For example, adding MixGen in ALBEF pre-training leads to absolute performance improvements on downstream tasks: image-text retrieval (+6.2% on COCO fine-tuned and +5.3% on Flicker30K zero-shot), visual grounding (+0.9% on Re-fCOCO+), visual reasoning (+0.9% on NLVR <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2</sup> ), visual question answering (+0.3% on VQA2.0), and visual entail-ment (+0.4% on SNLI-VE).

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