By the concept of dialogical memory we understand the process of creating transnational memory in the course of complementing individual national memories. In the opinion of its inventor, the German memoryologist Aleida Assmann, dialogical memory is particularly important for the nations with a difficult past. A responsible and empathic narration of a shared history can lay the foundation for a normal relationships in the future. The purpose of the article is to analyze the phenomenon of dialogical memory as exemplified by the Pol- ish-Lithuanian debate on the common past and its impact on the current political relations. In recent times we can observe the organized anniversary celebrations by the governments of both countries related to the history of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, a common state that existed between the 16th and 18th centuries. A special historical celebration took place in Vilnius in November 2019. With the participation of the delegations from Poland, Belarus and Ukraine, the remains of the heroes who took part in the anti-Russian January Uprising in 1863-1864 were buried with honours. These celebrations mark a characteristic change that took place in the Lithuanian politics of memory in relation to the assessment of the traditions of the common Polish-Lithuanian state. A community of interests in the sphere of security, economy, and politics is deepening this process. Membership in the Eu- ropean Union and the Atlantic Pact are platforms joining Poles and Lithuanians in the 21st century. This membership provides opportunities for both states to cooperate and develop common interests and values. Common neighbourhood with the Russian exclave in Kalin- ingrad and a sense of threat from Russia deepens mutual Polish-Lithuanian understanding.

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