Several assays have been used for detection of antibodies against cytokines. The choice of assay is greatly dependent on the intended goal, e.g. detection of naturally occurring antibodies or therapy induced antibodies. The different assays can be grouped in 2 categories. The interference or indirect assays are based on the detection of the test sample interference with the biological activity, with detection of the cytokine in EIA or with binding to cellular receptors. In direct assays cytokine antibodies are detected by binding to solid phase fixed cytokines, followed by incubation with a secondary enzyme-labelled anti-human Ig antibody or by binding to 125I-labelled cytokines in RIA.

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