Periviable and previable premature rupture of membranes (pPPROM) occurs in <1% of pregnancies but can have devastating consequences for the mother and the fetus. Understanding risk factors, possible interventions, and both maternal and neonatal outcomes will improve the counseling and care provided for these patients. The aim of this review is to describe the etiology, risk factors, management strategies, neonatal and maternal outcomes, and recurrence risk for patients experiencing pPPROM. A PubMed, Web of Science, and CINAHL search was undertaken with unlimited years searched. The search terms used included "previable" OR "periviable" AND "fetal membranes" OR "premature rupture" OR "PROM" OR "PPROM." The search was limited to English language. There were 181 articles identified, with 41 being the basis of review. Multiple risk factors for pPPROM have been identified, but their predictive value remains low. Interventions that are typically used once the fetus reaches 23 to 24 weeks of gestation have not been shown to improve outcomes when used in the previable and periviable stage. Neonatal outcomes have improved over time, but survival without severe morbidity remains low. Later gestational age at the time of pPPROM and longer latency period have been shown to be associated with improved outcomes. Periviable and previable premature rupture of membranes are uncommon pregnancy events, but neonatal outcomes remain poor, and routine interventions for PPROM >24 weeks of gestation have not proven beneficial. The 2 most reliable prognostic indicators are gestational age at time of pPPROM and length of the latency period.

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