Revascularisation for peripheral artery disease (PAD) is increasingly common in dialysis patients. Patients with PAD who have undergone revascularisation are at high risk of subsequent complications. Malnutrition is an important modifiable risk factor for dialysis patients, yet few data exist on the prognostic impact of malnutrition on post-procedure long term outcomes. The objective was to assess the prevalence and prognostic association of malnutrition using the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score in a prospective cohort of dialysis patients undergoing endovascular therapy (EVT) for PAD. A total of 395 consecutive dialysis patients undergoing endovascular revascularisation for lower extremity PAD between 2005 and 2019 were examined for the primary outcome of all cause death. Secondary outcomes included major adverse limb events (MALEs), defined as acute limb ischaemia, major amputation, and clinically driven revascularisation; and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). Nutritional status was assessed by CONUT score, a screening tool for malnutrition, incorporating albumin, cholesterol, and total lymphocyte count. According to the CONUT score, 40.8% of patients were moderately or severely malnourished. During a median follow up of 2.2 years, 218 (55.2%) patients died; 211 (53.4%) patients had MALEs, and MACEs occurred in 135 (34.2%) patients. Compared with normal nutritional status, severe malnutrition was associated with a significantly increased risk of all cause death (adjusted hazard ration [aHR] 4.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.56 - 9.12) and MALEs (aHR 2.42, 95% CI 1.23 - 4.74) but not MACEs (aHR 1.81, 95% CI 0.74 - 4.40). Similar results were observed when the CONUT score was analysed as a continuous variable. Malnutrition is common in dialysis patients with PAD requiring endovascular therapy and is strongly associated with increased death and MALEs. Clinical trials are needed to evaluate whether nutritional interventions improve outcomes for dialysis patients after peripheral revascularisation.

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