Sustainable use of biomass energy sources can reduce dependency on fossil fuels. Wood biomass is the primary source for heating in Slovenia, with firewood and wood pellets having the highest share. Slovenia’s largest consumers of wood fuels are households primarily using wood from their forests or imported wood pellets. This research used a life cycle assessment to analyze and evaluate the environmental impacts of using firewood and wood pellets for household heating in Slovenia for the first time. The results showed that wood logs have a considerably greater effect on stratospheric ozone depletion, ozone formation, and fine particulate matter (PM) formation. The impact on global warming was lower due to short transportation distances and using log boilers with high combustion efficiency (0.016 and 0.041 kg CO2 eq for wood log and wood pellet combustion, respectively). An increase in transportation distance from 100 km to 1000 km resulted in an 84.9% increase in the values for the categories ozone formation and human health, a 120.4% increase for fossil resource scarcity, and a 102.4% increase in global warming, supporting the premise that short distribution routes are necessary for more sustainable use of the energy source.

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