Current views on immunity support the idea that immunity extends beyond defense functions and is tightly intertwined with several other fields of biology such as virology, microbiology, physiology and ecology. It is also critical for our understanding of autoimmunity and cancer, two topics of great biological relevance and for critical public health considerations such as disease prevention and treatment. Central to this review, the immune system is known to interact intimately with the nervous system and has been recently hypothesized to be involved not only in autonomic and limbic bio-behaviors but also in cognitive function. Herein we review the structural architecture of the brain network involved in immune response. Furthermore, we elaborate upon the implications of inflammatory processes affecting brain-immune interactions as reported recently in pathological conditions due to SARS-Cov-2 virus infection, namely in acute and post-acute COVID-19. Moreover, we discuss how current neuroimaging techniques combined with ad hoc clinical autopsies and histopathological analyses could critically affect the validity of clinical translation in studies of human brain-immune interactions using neuroimaging. Advances in our understanding of brain-immune interactions are expected to translate into novel therapeutic avenues in a vast array of domains including cancer, autoimmune diseases or viral infections such as in acute and post-acute or Long COVID-19.

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