Objective Evidence suggests incarcerated individuals have high rates of mental health difficulties, and that incarcerated women face greater trauma-related than incarcerated males. The current study investigated efficacy of an acceptance-based, insight-oriented treatment approach to alleviate mental health challenges in incarcerated women. Method Incarcerated females (N = 90) were recruited from a medium security facility and were randomized to either the treatment condition (n = 49) or a waitlist control (n = 41). Emotion dysregulation, psychological inflexibility, global mental health, and trauma symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-course, and 6-month follow-up. Results A significant main effect of treatment was found for all primary outcomes at post-course and 6-month follow-up. Results yielded significant mean differences between time points for the treatment condition for all primary outcomes from baseline to post-course, and baseline to 6-month follow-up. Conclusion Results suggest the acceptance-based, insight-oriented treatment approach is efficacious for incarcerated women. A purposed mechanism of the intervention is discussed.

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