Studies in humans and animals suggest that seminal plasma, the acellular seminal fluid component, stimulates the endometrium to promote immune tolerance and facilitate implantation. We designed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to investigate changes in the endometrial transcriptomic profile after vaginal application of seminal plasma. The study participants were randomized into two groups. Five women received a vaginal application of seminal plasma, and four received a placebo application with saline solution. The application was performed two days after human chorionic gonadotrophin-triggered ovulation in an unstimulated cycle. After 5-8 days, an endometrial biopsy was collected to analyze differences in the endometrial transcriptomic profile using microarray analyses. A differential gene expression analysis and a gene set analysis were performed. The gene set enrichment analysis showed a positive enrichment of pathways associated with the immune response, cell viability, proliferation and cellular movement. Moreover, pathways involved in implantation, embryo development, oocyte maturation, and angiogenesis were positively enriched. The differential gene expression analysis, after adjusting for multiple testing, showed no significantly differentially expressed genes between the two groups. A comparative analysis was also performed with similar studies conducted in other animals or in vitro using human endometrial cells. The comparative analysis showed that the effect of seminal plasma effect on the endometrium is similar in pigs, mice and in vitro human endometrial cells. The present study provides evidence that seminal plasma might impact the endometrium during the implantation window, with potential to affect endometrial receptivity and embryo development.

Full Text
Published version (Free)

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call