ObjectiveAmbulance dispatch algorithms should function as clinical prediction rules, identifying high acuity patients for advanced life support, and low acuity patients for non-urgent transport. Systematic reviews of dispatch algorithms are rare and focus on study types specific to the final phases of rule development, such as impact studies, and may miss the complete value-added evidence chain. We sought to summarise the literature for studies seeking to improve dispatch in trauma by performing a scoping review according to standard frameworks for developing and evaluating clinical prediction rules. MethodsWe performed a scoping review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, the CENTRAL trials registry, and grey literature from January 2005 to October 2021. We included all study types investigating dispatch triage to injured patients in the English language. We reported the clinical prediction rule phase (derivation, validation, impact analysis, or user acceptance) and the performance and outcomes measured for high and low acuity trauma patients. ResultsOf 2067 papers screened, we identified 12 low and 30 high acuity studies. Derivation studies were most common (52%) and rule-based computer-aided dispatch was the most frequently investigated (23 studies). Impact studies rarely reported a prior validation phase, and few validation studies had their impact investigated. Common outcome measures in each phase were infrequent (0 to 27%), making a comparison between protocols difficult. A series of papers for low acuity patients and another for pediatric trauma followed clinical prediction rule development. Some low acuity Medical Priority Dispatch System codes are associated with the infrequent requirement for advanced life support and clinician review of computer-aided dispatch may enhance dispatch triage accuracy in studies of helicopter emergency medical services. ConclusionsFew derivation and validation studies were followed by an impact study, indicating important gaps in the value-added evidence chain. While impact studies suggest clinician oversight may enhance dispatch, the opportunity exists to standardize outcomes, identify trauma-specific low acuity codes, and develop intelligent dispatch systems.

Full Text
Published version (Free)

Talk to us

Join us for a 30 min session where you can share your feedback and ask us any queries you have

Schedule a call