This paper focuses on the archaeological evidence for western imperial campaigns between the reigns of Diocletian (A.D. 284–305) and Honorius (A.D. 395–423). Military campaigning is an ephemeral and rapidly changing process of human interactions. Although Roman campaigning is often well-documented, archaeological evidence is not especially well-suited to documenting events within a particular year, though it is very useful in enhancing our knowledge of resources and processes. This paper analyses the army’s actions, and then discusses how the archaeological evidence contributes to our understanding. There were enormous differences between the resources available to Rome and her enemies in the 4th c. West, even if frontier culture was similar.

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