AbstractHemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) remains an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. HDFN is caused by maternal alloimmunization with red blood cell (RBC) antigens. This article describes and highlights the issues in the care of pregnant women with RBC alloimmunization. This includes monitoring for, and management of fetal anemia caused by maternal red cell alloantibodies, but also considerations for transfusion support for the woman in the event of major bleeding. Many aspects of care for women with RBC alloantibodies are not covered within specific guidelines, particularly with respect to best practice for antenatal management of women with prior significant obstetric morbidity or mortality due to HDFN, and we will outline our approach in these cases. The use of noninvasive monitoring for fetal anemia through measurement of the middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity has led to a paradigm shift in antenatal care for women with high-risk antibodies, and medical therapies hold promise for women with the most severe disease.

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