The metastable helium triplet in the near-infrared (10 833 Å) is among the most important probes of exoplanet atmospheres. It can trace their extended outer layers and constrain mass loss. We used the near-infrared high-resolution spectropolarimeter SPIRou on the CFHT to search for the spectrally resolved helium triplet in the atmospheres of eleven exoplanets, ranging from warm mini-Neptunes to hot Jupiters and orbiting G, K, and M dwarfs. Observations were obtained as part of the SPIRou Legacy Survey and complementary open-time programs. We applied a homogeneous data reduction to all datasets and set constraints on the presence of metastable helium, despite the presence of systematics in the data. We confirm published detections for HAT-P-11 b, HD 189733 b, and WASP-69 b and set upper limits for the other planets. We applied the p–winds open source code to set upper limits on the mass-loss rate for the nondetections and to constrain the thermosphere temperature, mass-loss rate, line-of-sight velocity, and the altitude of the thermosphere for the detections. We confirm that the presence of metastable helium correlates with the stellar mass and the extreme-ultraviolet flux received by the planets. We investigated the correlation between the mass-loss rate and the presence of metastable helium, but it remains difficult to draw definitive conclusions. Finally, some of our results are in contradiction with previous results in the literature, and therefore we stress the importance of repeatable, homogeneous, and larger-scale analyses of the helium triplet to obtain robust statistics, study temporal variability, and better understand how the helium triplet can be used to explore the evolution of exoplanets.

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