The need for adherence to a healthy and sustainable dietary pattern in the pediatric stage is discussed worldwide, being linked to a progressive incidence of noncommunicable diseases in adulthood. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize the healthy and/or sustainable dietary patterns, defined a priori, described in the literature for use during the pediatric stage; to evaluate the adherence to these dietary patterns; and identify the health-related benefits associated with adherence to these patterns. A literature search was carried out on Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science from 2010 up to 2021, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 128 articles were included according to the following criteria: participants 2-17 y old, healthy and/or sustainable dietary patterns defined by an a priori methodology; articles written in English or Portuguese; and published since 2010. Fifty instruments with 14 adaptations that measure adherence to healthy and/or sustainable dietary patterns in children and adolescents were found. The Mediterranean Diet was the most studied dietary pattern. Adherence to healthy and/or sustainable dietary patterns has wide variations worldwide. Most of the instruments described have been little studied at pediatric ages, reducing the ability to extrapolate results. Higher adherence to these dietary patterns was associated with lower body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, and metabolic risk. There is no consensus regarding the association with BMI. No studies have proofs of the sustainability characteristics of these instruments, it being necessary to produce a new sustainable instrument or test the association of the previous ones with, for example, the ecological footprint. Further validations of these instruments in each country and more prospective studies are needed to establish temporal relations with health-related outcomes. This systematic review was registered at www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/ as CRD42020221788.

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