Frontiers in Veterinary Science | VOL. 9
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Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) associated with birds in Europe: Review of literature data

Publication Date Aug 25, 2022

Abstract

Hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are considered the most important transmitters of pathogens in the temperate zone that covers most of Europe. In the era of climate change tick-borne diseases are predicted to undergo geographical range expansion toward the north through regions that are connected to southern areas of the continent by bird migration. This alone would justify the importance of synthesized knowledge on the association of tick species with avian hosts, yet birds also represent the most taxonomically and ecologically diverse part of urban vertebrate fauna. Birds frequently occur in gardens and near animal keeping facilities, thus playing a significant role in the dispersal of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in synanthropic environments. The primary aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive reference source (baseline data) for future studies, particularly in the context of discovering new tick-host associations after comparison with already published data. The records on the ixodid tick infestations of birds were assessed from nearly 200 papers published since 1952. In this period, 37 hard tick species were reported from 16 orders of avian hosts in Europe. Here we compile a list of these tick species, followed by the English and Latin name of all reported infested bird species, as well as the tick developmental stage and country of origin whenever this information was available. These data allowed a first-hand analysis of general trends regarding how and at which developmental stage of ticks tend to infest avian...

Concepts

Tick Species Avian Hosts Tick Developmental Stage Dispersal Of Ticks Hard Ticks Ixodes Arboricola Synanthropic Environments Tick-host Associations Haemaphysalis Concinna Birds In Europe

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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...

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